Home

PF Limits in OpenBSD

This article documents one of several insidious little gotchas I’ve encountered using OpenBSD systems in a core-router/firewall capacity in lieu of Cisco 2851 or Juniper j4350 class hardware. Specifically, various hard memory limits built into PF, which, when encountered, cause PF to stop accepting new connections.

Incidently, here is the story of how I wound up replacing the preponderant quantity of my networking gear with openBSD and saved metric-oodles of coinage.

Anyway, the upshot is that if you use OpenBSD with PF in a production environment and you aren’t aware of PF’s memory limit (especially the state-related memory limits), you have a ticking time-bomb on your network. Just FYI.

I’d been playing with OpenBSD for fun, in low-budget side projects, and non-prod environments for years before that fateful day that I ran into the state-table limit like a brick wall.

It was shortly after I’d replaced the cisco-based core routing infrastructure of our Headquarters building with OpenBSD. It presented as a sort of network “glitch”. You know, the unexplainable little connectivity loss that only affects one user. Probably his cable, or wall socket. But then it was two or three users, and then it was a user whose connectivity was working fine, except for he couldn’t create new ssh connections suddenly (wha?). It was gone as quickly as it appeared, and never seemed to adhere to any sort of consistent set of symptoms. It was quite maddening.

At some point I noticed that if I was quick enough, I could catch a “no route to host” error message from PF on the console of the core routers, and that’s when I really started looking at them in earnest.

It turns out, as I’ve already said, the kernel keeps memory set aside for PF to do things like create state tables and state table entries. In my case I was hitting the limit on the total number of states PF was allowed to track at once. This meant that new connections would fail with no route to host until some other state expired and made room for the new one. This looked downright wierd troublshooting from the outside because protocols like HTTP (which are stateless) would still work pretty well, while others like SSH (which requires a constant connection) were more likely to have problems.

You can see the default sizes of these limits using pfctl -sm:

# pfctl -sm
states        hard limit    10000
src-nodes     hard limit    10000
frags         hard limit     5000
tables        hard limit     1000
table-entries hard limit   200000

These are pretty sane defaults for most people who are running OpenBSD routers, which is to say, nerds who have wedged it on to their soekris board or the wrt54 they found at the second-hand store, or the 8086 they found under the sink in their dad’s house.

If you’re running production routers on real hardware you’re going to want to raise those a bit. And by ‘bit’ I mean like two orders of magnitude. Do this with a line in your pf.conf that looks something like this:

set limit { states 1000000, frags 1000000, src-nodes 100000, tables 1000000, table-entries 1000000 }

You can check to see if you’ve ever hit one of these limits with pfctl -si, which displayes the values for a whole bunch of couters tracked by PF:

[dave@a][~]--> sudo pfctl -si
Status: Enabled for 686 days 01:20:03            Debug: err

State Table                          Total             Rate
    current entries                    39401               
    searches                    587674569722         9914.3/s
    inserts                      23981800145          404.6/s
    removals                     23981760744          404.6/s
Counters
    match                        24166482278          407.7/s
    bad-offset                             0            0.0/s
    fragment                               0            0.0/s
    short                                  0            0.0/s
    normalize                           1282            0.0/s
    memory                                 0            0.0/s
    bad-timestamp                          0            0.0/s
    congestion                           204            0.0/s
    ip-option                         433656            0.0/s
    proto-cksum                            0            0.0/s
    state-mismatch                    135709            0.0/s
    state-insert                           0            0.0/s
    state-limit                            0            0.0/s
    src-limit                              0            0.0/s
    synproxy                               0            0.0/s

If you have RRDTool installed, you can use this shell script to push some of these values into an RRD (or repurpose it to feed collectd or gmond or whatever):

#!/usr/local/bin/bash

gawk="/usr/local/bin/gawk"
pfctl="/sbin/pfctl"
rrdtool="/usr/local/bin/rrdtool"
RRDHOME='/home/pcap/rrd'

pfctl_info() {
    local output=$($pfctl -si 2>&1)
    local temp=$(echo "$output" | $gawk '
        BEGIN {BytesIn=0; BytesOut=0; PktsInPass=0; PktsInBlock=0; \
               PktsOutPass=0; PktsOutBlock=0; States=0; StateSearchs=0; \
               StateInserts=0; StateRemovals=0}
        /Bytes In/ { BytesIn = $3 }
        /Bytes Out/ { BytesOut = $3 }
        /Packets In/ { getline;PktsInPass = $2 }
        /Passed/ { getline;PktsInBlock = $2 }
        /Packets Out/ { getline;PktsOutPass = $2 }
        /Passed/ { getline;PktsOutBlock = $2 }
        /current entries/ { States = $3 }
        /searches/ { StateSearchs = $2 }
        /inserts/ { StateInserts = $2 }
        /removals/ { StateRemovals = $2 }
        END {print BytesIn ":" BytesOut ":" PktsInPass ":" \
             PktsInBlock ":" PktsOutPass ":" PktsOutBlock ":" \
             States ":" StateSearchs ":" StateInserts ":" StateRemovals}
        ')
    RETURN_VALUE=$temp
}

### collect the data
pfctl_info

### update the database
$rrdtool update ${RRDHOME}/pf_stats_db.rrd --template BytesIn:BytesOut:PktsInPass:PktsInBlock:PktsOutPass:PktsOutBlock:States:StateSearchs:StateInserts:StateRemovals N:$RETURN_VALUE

And then use the following to draw graphs from it:

#!/bin/sh

RRDHOME='/home/pcap/rrd'
cd ${RRDHOME}

#####
######## pf state rate graph
/usr/local/bin/rrdtool graph pf_stats_states.png \
-w 785 -h 151 -a PNG \
--slope-mode \
--start -86400 --end now \
--font DEFAULT:7: \
--title "pf state rate" \
--watermark "`date`" \
--vertical-label "states/sec" \
--right-axis-label "searches/sec" \
--right-axis 100:0 \
--x-grid MINUTE:10:HOUR:1:MINUTE:120:0:%R \
--alt-y-grid --rigid \
DEF:StateInserts=pf_stats_db.rrd:StateInserts:MAX \
DEF:StateRemovals=pf_stats_db.rrd:StateRemovals:MAX \
DEF:StateSearchs=pf_stats_db.rrd:StateSearchs:MAX \
CDEF:scaled_StateSearchs=StateSearchs,0.01,* \
DEF:States=pf_stats_db.rrd:States:MAX \
CDEF:scaled_States=States,0.01,* \
AREA:StateInserts#33CC33:"inserts" \
GPRINT:StateInserts:LAST:"Cur\: %5.2lf" \
GPRINT:StateInserts:AVERAGE:"Avg\: %5.2lf" \
GPRINT:StateInserts:MAX:"Max\: %5.2lf" \
GPRINT:StateInserts:MIN:"Min\: %5.2lf\t\t" \
LINE1:scaled_StateSearchs#FF0000:"searches" \
GPRINT:StateSearchs:LAST:"Cur\: %5.2lf" \
GPRINT:StateSearchs:AVERAGE:"Avg\: %5.2lf" \
GPRINT:StateSearchs:MAX:"Max\: %5.2lf" \
GPRINT:StateSearchs:MIN:"Min\: %5.2lf\n" \
LINE1:StateRemovals#0000CC:"removal" \
GPRINT:StateRemovals:LAST:"Cur\: %5.2lf" \
GPRINT:StateRemovals:AVERAGE:"Avg\: %5.2lf" \
GPRINT:StateRemovals:MAX:"Max\: %5.2lf" \
GPRINT:StateRemovals:MIN:"Min\: %5.2lf\t\t" \
LINE1:scaled_States#00F0F0:"States" \
GPRINT:States:LAST:"Cur\: %5.2lf" \
GPRINT:States:AVERAGE:"Avg\: %5.2lf" \
GPRINT:States:MAX:"Max\: %5.2lf" \
GPRINT:States:MIN:"Min\: %5.2lf\n" 

which will yield you a pretty, two-axis graph like the one below which should help you avoid limits in the future.

PF State Graph

Home